Production process

We immunize Llama’s or Alpaca’s to provide blood samples containing both classical and heavy-chain only antibodies and offer VHH development and production.

The production process and Options are detailed below.



At Eurogentec, llama or alpaca immunizations are conducted using customized protocols and antigens to produce heavy chain only antibodies.

Serum samples are available for testing or for IgG’s isolation.


5 – 10 weeks*


The program can be stopped at this step and you receive unpurified pAb (blood or serum).


*Average time


Lymphocytes isolation & mRNA extraction

Blood lymphocytes necessary for VHH production are poorly stable.

So we provide the service for lymphocyte isolation from a blood sample (+/- 250 mL) and the RNA extraction.


1 Day*


The program can be stopped at this step and you receive mRNA.


*Average time


VHH screening & production

We generate VHH phage display libraries to screen for high affinity monoclonal VHH.


8 weeks*


  • Step 1 : Two libraries with size >107 different clones and > 90% insert.
  • Step 2 : The sequences of at least 6 binders from 2 families**.
  • Step 3 : 0.5 mg protein of the lead clones produced in E.coli and purified (>80%).

*Average time

** When the clone diversity allows


VHH fragments can be custom labeled for a wide range of applications including immunofluorescence, FACS analysis, in vivo imaging, PET imaging, MRI imaging, IHC and electron microscopy.

Large scale & GMP production

We can produce large quantities of VHH antibody fragment in yeast for animal experiments or crystallography up to GMP grade for microdosing studies in human.


The sequence of the VHH fragments can be optimized for production, physical and “in product” stability and various types of clinical use.


VHH antibody fragments can be generated in bivalent, bispecific or custom made formats.