Spexin is a novel peptide hormone that is derived from the prohormone proNPQ and is conserved amongst mammalian species. Spexin (36-49) is post-translationally amidated with a C-terminal amidation processing signal motif (GRR) following Q49 residue of the pro-hormone. It contributes to CNS-mediated control of arterial blood pressure and salt and water balance and modulates nociceptive responses. Spexin reduces adipocyte uptake of long chain fatty acids and causes weight loss in rodents. Recently, it was suggested that this peptide may play a role in lipid and glucose metabolism in patients with type-2 diabetes mellitus.