Neutralizing antibodies from Llama as therapeutics

In addition to conventional two-chain-structured antibodies, Camelids produce single-heavy-chain Ab with the smallest naturally-occurring antigen binding domain, the VHH Fragment.

Due to their small sizes (~15kDa), high tissue penetration, and stability, VHH antibody fragments can be used in therapy to bind epitopes that are hidden and deliver drugs on a specific site.

In the COVID-19 context, Jiangdong Huo et al. identified a neutralizing Llama nanobody that interacts with a high affinity to the receptor-binding domain (RBD) of the spike protein (Protein S) of SARS-CoV-2. This interaction blocks the bounding between Protein S and the human ACE2 receptor preventing the virus entry into the host cell. (2)

VHH nanobodies are considered a promising treatment for COVID-19 blocking the virus in its life cycle.

VHH antibodies

COVID19 Drug development
and manufacturing

We manufacture drugs for clinical trial and commercial material for all major markets according to FDA, EMA, and PMDA requirements. We offer GMP biomanufacturing of Plasmid DNA, recombinant proteins, and protein conjugates. We also produce GMP therapeutic oligonucleotides by chemical synthesis and in vitro transcribed RNA (IVT-RNA) by enzymatic production.


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We produce GMP Plasmid DNA for starting material, clinical trial, and commercial applications since 2004. We have significant experience and expertise in the large-scale production of plasmid DNA for various uses.

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We develop processes and manufacture GMP recombinant proteins and chemically modified recombinant proteins for clinical trial and commercial uses. All GMP material is produced in accordance to US, EU and Japanese regulatory requirements for sterile injectable products.

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We have experience in the production of numerous antibody fragment formats (VHH, scFv, Fab, diabody, and bispecific tandem scFv) in E.coli or P.pastoris.

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We offer process development and GMP manufacturing of In vitro transcribed RNA (IVT-RNA) API for use in Tox studies and Human clinical trials.

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We produce pre-clinical and GMP therapeutic oligonucleotides in ISO 8 & 7 classified cleanrooms respectively. We frequently produce siRNA, Antisense, Aptamer, CpG oligonucleotides among others.

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SARS-CoV-2 related subjects


1) Drugs targeting various stages of the SARS-CoV-2 life cycle: Exploring promising drugs for the treatment of Covid-19.

Ramarao Poduri, Gaurav Joshi, Gowraganahalli Jagadeesh.
Cellular Signalling 74 (2020) 109721 – DOI: 1016/j.cellsig.2020.109721

2) Neutralizing nanobodies bind SARS-CoV-2 spike RBD and block interaction with ACE2.

Jiangdong Huo et al.
Nature Structural & Molecular Biology volume 27, pages846–854(2020) - DOI:10.1038/s41594-020-0469-6